ESV - 16 Saying, "A hand upon the throne of the Lord! The Lord will have war with Amalek from generation to generation.
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Amalek was not the father of the Amalekites of Gen. 14:7 who were of the giant races (Num. 13:29; 14:39-45) but of those among "the first of the nations" (Num. 24:20). The Edomite Amalekites were always separate from the giants; but like the giants they were to be exterminated, for they were enemies of Israel (Ex. 17:8-16; Dt. 25:17-19; Judg. 3:13; 5:14; 6:3-5; 12:15; 1Sam. 15:1-9; 27:8; 30:1; 1Chr. 4:41-43; Ps. 83:7). Amalek was a descendant of Esau, brother of Jacob (Gen. 36:12,16). The Amalekites were the first to fight against Israel when coming out of Egypt, and they were considered the first of the nations here (Ex. 17:8-16). This prophecy of Balaam is the same as one Moses gave regarding complete destruction of the Amalekites (Ex. 17:16; Dt. 25:17-19). The nation was destroyed by Saul (1Sam. 15) and David (1Sam. 27:8). The remnant was destroyed by the Simeonites (1Chr. 4:42-43). Three commands--vengeance on Amalek: ❶ Remember what Amalek did to you on your way out of Egypt. ❷ When you get settled in Canaan, blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven (Deut. 25:19). ❸ You must not forget it. Amalek gave Israel trouble during the judges (Judg. 3:13; 5:14; 6:3,33; 7:12; 10:12; 12:15). God then commanded Saul to fulfill this prophecy and kill every Amalekite (1Sam. 14:48; 15:1-5). He completely broke the power of Amalek, but did not fully obey God in destroying them, and so was rejected as king and destroyed (1Sam. 15:10-35; 28:18). Later, the remnant was destroyed by Simeonites in the days of Hezekiah (1Chr. 4:39-43). It seems that Haman and his sons were the last of the Amalekites. They were destroyed in the time of Esther, when the prophecy was literally and completely fulfilled.
Amalek, from whom the Amalekites were descended, was one of the eight listed sons of Eliphaz, who, in turn, was a son of Jacob's (Israel's) twin brother Esau by his wife Adah, who was a Hittite woman (a descendant of Heth, who was a son of Ham, and a grandson of Noah) (Genesis 10:6; Genesis 10:15; Genesis 36:1-5,15-16). As such, the Amalekites were not part of the "godly" line descended through Jacob. Amalek's descendants are next mentioned as a tribe or nation in the passage cited in the question (Exodus 17:8-16), in which the Amalekites fought with the nation of Israel in the northern part of the Sinai Peninsula after Israel's exodus from Egypt. The Israelites, under the command of Joshua, engaged the Amalekites in battle at Rephidim (meaning "refreshments", in recognition of God having miraculously provided food and water for the people (Exodus 16:1-17:7)). Israel was given God's help in the battle by means of Moses holding up his hands while sitting on a hill overlooking the fighting. When Moses became tired and lowered his hands, the Amalekites started prevailing against Israel. So Aaron (Moses' brother) and Hur (a member of the Israelite tribe of Judah) stood on either side of Moses holding up his hands until Israel had won the battle. God also proclaimed at that time that He would completely destroy the Amalekites. This destruction was ultimately accomplished by Saul and David, as described in chapters 15 through 31 of 1 Samuel.
Amalekite: A nomadic tribe of formidable people that first attacked the Israelites after the Exodus at Rephidim. Descendants of Amalek, the grandson of Esau (Gen.36:12)., they inhabited the desolate wasteland of the northeast Sinai peninsula and the Negeb. They were the first to attack Israel after the Exodus (Num. 24:20). Israel won the initial battle (Ex. 17:8-16), and the Lord told Moses, " I will utterly put out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven' (Ex. 17: 14). Later, because of their transgression against the commandments of the Lord, the Israelites were driven back into the Sinai wilderness by a coalition of Amalekites and Canaanites (Num 14:39-45). Thereafter the Amalekites waged a barbaric guerilla war against Israel (Deut. 25:17-19). Fighting continued after Israel settled in Canaan. Because of their atrocities, God commanded Saul to exterminate the Amalekites (1 Sam. 15: 2-3), Saul disobeyed (1 Sam. 15:8). David fought against them from one evening to another destroying them, but 400 hundred young men escaped upon camels (1 Sam. 30:17) and they were not defeated completely until late in the eighth century B.C (1 Chron.4:43)
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