Who are the brethren?
ESV - 1 Brothers, my heart's desire and prayer to God for them is that they may be saved.
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Although Paul in the preceding chapter (Romans 9:3) referred to the Jews (in the third person) as his "brothers", I believe that when he subsequently addressed his readers as "brothers" in Romans 10:1, he was instead speaking there to the members of the Christian congregation in Rome. He called them "brothers" in that verse on the basis of the common faith in Christ that Paul shared with them, but that the Jews did not possess. (Paul also speaks of the Israelites in the third person (as "them") in that same verse, which would further indicate that they are not the ones to whom he is speaking.)
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