2 Corinthians 5:21
ESV - 21 For our sake he made him to be sin who knew no sin, so that in him we might become the righteousness of God.
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A sin offering was a sacrifice, made according to the Mosaic Law, which provided atonement for sin. The Hebrew phrase for “sin offering” literally means “offering.” for faults committed in O.T. days. All the demands of a holy and righteous God were perfectly satisfied when Christ offered His body without any blemish, and shed His blood without any spot. His was the perfect offering. There is nothing we can add to it because it is just not necessary. Man thought that Jesus was finished, but He shouted victoriously that the work was finished! Salvation comes to us as a free gift because of the finished work on the Cross. A gift cannot be earned, it must only be received. On God's side salvation is all of grace, and on our side it is all of faith. We are not saved "by" good works but "for" good works. Boasting is totally out (Eph 2:8-10). The gospel is a Good News for those who have done their best but failed! The problem of the natural man with human reasoning is in understanding how the greatest of all gifts can be received by simple faith. In his pride and prestige he wants to "do" something and earn it. But God declares, "Done!" The message of the Cross is simply profound and profoundly simple. That's where the religionist stumbles. God made Christ a sin-offering, that man might become righteous (Eph. 5:2; cp. Ex. 29:14; Lev. 4:3; 6:25; Num. 8:8; Ps. 40:6).
I would say that sin as a concept is any thought, word, or action that is disobedient to God's commands as revealed in the Bible (both prior to and after the giving of the Law) (1 John 3:4). Individual sins are the many possible forms and degrees that that disobedience may assume, as well as the inherent natural tendency to commit sin that every human has possessed from birth since the time that the first sin was committed by humans (Psalm 51:5). (However, degrees of sin are only from a human perspective. As the Bible indicates (James 2:10), violation of any of God's commandments is the same in His eyes as violation of them all from the standpoint of rendering us unable to remain eternally in His presence apart from the forgiveness made possible through faith in Christ, who paid the penalty demanded by God for humanity's sins from eternity past to eternity future.)
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