Genesis 4:1 - 26
ESV - 1 Now Adam knew Eve his wife, and she conceived and bore Cain, saying, "I have gotten a man with the help of the Lord. 2 And again, she bore his brother Abel. Now Abel was a keeper of sheep, and Cain a worker of the ground.
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In fact, Adam and Eve were created to have dominion over Lucifer. They fell from grace within few days The first probationary period--Dispensation of Innocence (Gen. 2:15--3:21). Length of this period: only a few days (Gen. 2:17--Gen. 3:24). They may have lasted less than a week in the garden of Eden, for we have no record of God resting after His first sabbath. The Dispensation of Innocence ended before man had offspring (Gen. 2:21-25; 4:1). Hope that clarifies.
I never considered that question before since my default assumption was based on the chronological order of the story. But since the Bible narrative doesn't necessarily always flow chronologically, that isn't really a good foundation on which to base one's assumptions. I think the best way to approach this is to consider the fact that Cain had the sin of jealousy and then murder in his heart. Cain was dealing with sin. In Genesis 4:7, the Lord told Cain, "If thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door." In the book of Romans, Paul gives us some insight into how we all inherited the disease of sin. Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned: For until the law sin was in the world: but sin is not imputed when there is no law. Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam's transgression, who is the figure of him that was to come. But not as the offence, so also is the free gift. For if through the offence of one many be dead, much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace, which is by one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many. And not as it was by one that sinned, so is the gift: for the judgment was by one to condemnation, but the free gift is of many offences unto justification. (Romans 5:12-16) If Cain was born in the Garden he would not have ended up killing his brother because there would of never been a temptation in his heart to do so, because he would have been born before the fall of Adam. But every man is tempted, when he is drawn away of his own lust, and enticed. (James 1:14) So I would say that my first assumption that Cain and Abel were born after the Fall and outside of the Garden has a better foundation. Of course there are several other clues, like "tiller of the ground" but I believe this establishes enough evidence to support where they were born.
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