ESV - 19 Then you will say, "Branches were broken off so that I might be grafted in.
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Although Jesus (before His ascension) instructed His disciples to carry the gospel to all nations, He also appeared personally (in glorified form) to Paul (Acts 9:3-8), commissioning him for the same purpose. I believe that multiple factors led to God calling Paul. Paul was originally an opponent of the gospel and a persecutor of Christians (Acts 8:3; Acts 9:1-2). Therefore, he could identify from personal experience both with those who opposed Christianity, and with those who followed Christ. This would widen the scope of those among whom he could effectively minister or witness; increase his ability to answer criticisms or rejection of Christian teachings; and be a personal testimony to the life-changing power of faith in Christ. Paul was a Pharisee who had been thoroughly schooled in the Mosaic Law and in the prophecies of the Old Testament by Gamaliel, an eminent Jewish rabbi/teacher and member of the Jewish ruling council, the Sanhedrin (Acts 5:34-39; Acts 22:3). This enabled Paul to effectively refer to the Law and the prophets in the context of their fulfillment in Jesus; to rebut Jews who opposed Christianity; to shame Jewish opponents of Christianity who violated the Law in their conduct toward him (as in Acts 23:3); and to establish fundamental Christian principles by (for example) refuting "Judaizers" who attempted to require Gentile Christians to be circumcised (for males) and also to obey the Mosaic Law (in addition to having faith in Christ) in order to be saved (Galatians 1-5). He was a Roman citizen by birth, which gave him maximum freedom of travel and access to the varying countries and peoples that comprised the Roman Empire, and legal protections that aided in saving him from punishment and prolonging his ministry (as in Acts 22:22-29, for example). Based on his education and training, he was also undoubtedly already conversant in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, and familiar with literature or poetry in multiple languages (as evidenced by Acts 17:28, for example) in a way that the other apostles may not have been. This also increased the number of contexts in which he could evangelize. He was unmarried (1 Corinthians 7:8) -- unlike at least some of the apostles, such as Peter (Matthew 8:14) -- which meant that he could focus solely on the furtherance of the gospel, without having his attention diverted or his ability to freely travel affected by domestic/family concerns. There may be other considerations, as well, but these are the ones that occur to me most readily as to why God was able to use Paul in a way that may not have been possible through the original apostles, or that might have required multiple other individuals to carry out evangelical activity that Paul could accomplish by himself.
I agree with the other postings but would like to add that after the dispersion we read in Acts 11:19 "Now they which were scattered abroad upon the persecution that arose about Stephen travelled as far as Phenice, and Cyprus, and Antioch, preaching the word to none but unto the Jews only." "...preaching the word to none but into the Jews only". Consider this was approximately 7-8 years AFTER Christ's ascension and the original disciples were still in Israel. So much for evangelism.
Paul was predestined to preach to the Gentiles the Salvation through Jesus Christ, and through him, many Gentiles were saved and believed.
The Great Commission of Matt 28:19-20 was indeed given to the 11 disciples, which told them to go and teach all nations, baptising them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. As the 11 were Jews, as a practical matter they were limited to contacting the Jews in other nations during their lifetime. Peter was called the apostle of the circumcision (Gal 2.8), and the other 10 were presumably in much the same category. Paul, as the "apostle to the Gentiles" was, during his lifetime, specifically called to convert gentiles rather than Jews due to his wider status within the Roman Empire, and his earlier education. Because of Paul, Christianity had an early beginning at converting gentiles - the 11 disciples initially would not have believed that gentiles had anything to do with Jesus Christ as the Messiah and Son of God. This was one of the things not revealed until after Christ's Ascension.
In the Gospels Jesus debated, clashed and corrected the Pharisees more than any other group. The Pharisees were so bound in religious rules many of them hated the freedom that Jesus taught and demonstrated NONE of Jesus's disciples were Pharisees. Mostly they were working class. I believe GOD demonstrated s whole new dimension of his grace and the power of the gospel when he called Paul, a PHARISEE, to lead such a significant evangelical ministry. From the very group of people who attacked Jesus the most, God calls a great leader of the New Testament church. The contrast of Saul the pharisee to Paul the Apostle sets the scene for how the transforming power of the gospel is to work for the centuries to come and shows God's love is for everyone.
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