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Jesus in the New Testament added light, better defining His 6th commandment against and forbidding killing. Many interpret scripture, Hebrew translation providing a difference between authorized, legal killing and murder based on intent. In (John 8:7) "The Woman Caught in Adultery." Jesus, said, "Let him who is without sin among you be the first to throw a stone at her." This was going to be a legally sanctioned killing (not murder) of a woman in accordance with the law. (Mark 14:1) "The Plot to Kill Jesus" Once again using legal government sanctioned killing, (not considered murder) Chief Priests and Scribes seeking how to arrest Him by stealth and kill Him." The death penalty has no place in our legal system or any legal system. Our sinful nature to many times rules the outcome of a guilty or not guilty ruling. (Matthew 5:21-22) Jesus linking "Whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the same judgment as whosoever is angry with his brother." Once again is Jesus using the Hebrew word murder or the killing of anyone regardless of intent. I think "killing" is the best word to describe and define this issue. As it is written in the 6th commandment. (Matthew 26:51-52) Jesus speaking to His desciples," "Put up again thy sword into his place for all they that take the sword shall perish with the sword." Do not kill while physically defending me. Jesus is putting into practice what He is teaching. (Luke 6:35) "Love your enemies, be kind to the ungrateful and the evil." (Romans 12:19) "Vengeance is mine. I will repay, says the Lord." In closing, many of us, all sinners, think killing and avenging in war is authorized. We use the word defense to authorize power and the taking of one life or many (collateral damage) to justify our actions. The heroism of Desmond T. Doss the hero of "Hacksaw Ridge" stands out. The first conscientious objector to receive the Medal of Honor by saving more than 75 lives. All this while refusing to carry a weapon to defend himself. "His mission was to heal, not kill." Following Jesus.
In Matthew 5:21-26, Jesus expanded on the definition of the commandment "You shall not murder" from the Old Testament (Exodus 20:13) by saying that, from God's perspective, even unrighteous anger or verbal abuse against someone was subject to the same judgment in God's sight as taking that person's life. In my view, His purpose in saying this was to emphasize how seriously God regards such behavior, and to convict self-satisfied people who might believe that, as long as they have not actually taken someone else's physical life, then they have pleased God and done all that He requires, no matter how they may hate, mistreat, or excoriate other people. Other New Testament references (such as Romans 13:1-4 and 1 Peter 2:13-14) to the government's God-given authority to impose death as a punishment for capital crimes would indicate that Jesus' words are to be interpreted on an interpersonal (rather than societal) level, and that the taking of a life as a judicial punishment does not constitute murder. Nor would either the Old Testament commandment or Jesus' words apply to killing in self-defense, since such an action would not be unrighteous, without cause, or done out of anger or malice.
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