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David had 19 sons excluding daughters in his large Family ☞ Six Sons Born to David in Hebron: 1. Ammon of Ahinoam of Jezreel (2Sam. 2:2) 2. Chileab of Abigail (2Sam. 2:3); called Daniel (1Chr. 3:1) 3. Absalom of Maacah of Geshur 4. Adonijah of Haggith (2Sam. 2:4) 5. Shephatiah of Abital 6. Ithream of Eglah (2Sam. 2:5) Please note, Of these six sons and six mothers, half of them had a name beginning with "A." ☞ Thirteen Sons Born to David in Jerusalem: 1. Shammuah of Bathsheba (2Sam. 5:13); called Shimea (1Chr. 3:5; 14:4) 2. Shobab of Bathsheba (2Sam. 5:14); Bathsheba called Bathshua (1Chr. 3:5; 14:4) 3. Nathan of Bathsheba (2Sam. 5:14; 1Chr. 3:5; 14:4) 4. Solomon of Bathsheba (2Sam. 5:14; 1Chr. 3:5; 14:4) 5. Ibhar (2Sam. 5:15; 1Chr. 3:6; 14:5) 6. Elishua (2Sam. 5:15; 1Chr. 14:5); called Elishama (1Chr. 3:6; 14:7) 7. Eliphelet (1Chr. 3:6); called Epalet (1Chr. 14:5) 8. Nephed (2Sam. 5:15; 1Chr. 3:7; 14:6) 9. Japhia (2Sam. 5:15; 1Chr. 3:7; 14:6) 10. Nogah (1Chr. 3:7; 14:6) 11. Elishama (2Sam. 5:16; 1Chr. 3:8; 14:7) 12. Eliada (2Sam. 5:16; 1Chr. 3:8); called Beeliada (1Chr. 14:7) 13. Eliphalet (2Sam. 5:15; 1Chr. 3:8; 14:7) ☞ Daughters Born in Jerusalem: Tamar is mentioned (2Sam. 13:1; 1Chr. 3:9), but David had other daughters (2Sam. 5:13).
By my count, as listed in 1 Chronicles 3:1-9, David had a total of twenty identified sons by multiple wives (Amnon (by Ahinoam); Daniel (by Abigail); Absalom (by Maacah); Adonijah (by Haggith); Shephatiah (by Abital); Ithream (by Eglah); Shimea, Shobab, Nathan, Solomon, and an unnamed son who died seven days after his birth (by Bathsheba); Ibhar, Elishama, Eliphelet, Nogah, Nepheg, Japhia, a second son named Elishama, Eliada, and a second son named Eliphelet (all by unnamed/unspecified wives)), and an unspecified number of additional, unnamed sons by his concubines (who are also not named). (Another son named Jerimoth is mentioned in 2 Chronicles 11:18, although it is unclear whether he is one of the sons mentioned above (using another name) or one of David’s sons by a concubine.) So, as far as I can determine based on information given in the Bible, although twenty specified sons (nineteen of whom are named, and one of whom is unnamed) are definitely listed, it is not possible to precisely identify how many male children he had in total. (He also had at least one identified daughter (Tamar), mentioned in 1 Chronicles 3:9, as well as in 2 Samuel 13:1-19.)
In my current study of 1 Chronicles 17, we see the passage at verses 10b to 14 which includes a statement that God will build David a house---that is, a dynasty of kings---and that one of David's sons ("thy seed after thee, which shall be of thy sons") shall " build me an house, and I will stablish his throne for ever. I will be his father, and he shall be my son: and I will not take my mercy away from him, as I took it from him that was before thee: 1 Chronicles 17:12-13 KJV This prophecy could not have referred to Solomon because neither he nor any of David's multitude of other natural sons---both named and unnamed---were recorded as born in Bethlehem Ephratah as Micah 5:2 later made clear. While David might have thought that Solomon would fulfill the prophecy, if he deliberated about the meaning of "stablish his throne for ever" he would have realized that no natural man could ever fulfill that because of the curse of death under which every natural person is born. Although Solomon made a wonderful start to his kingdom, as he gradually built his unmatched harem, as expected, his heart became lukewarm or perhaps even cold toward the LORD, and he finished his life much worse than he began. L C Stansfield, M.Ed; M.Div.
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