ESV - 34 But I say to you, Do not take an oath at all, either by heaven, for it is the throne of God.
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As I understand the passage in question, Jesus was not condemning or forbidding the taking of formal oaths or vows in settings such as courts of law, marriage ceremonies, or other matters of true religious or legal significance. God Himself had authorized such oaths in the Old Testament (Leviticus 19:12, for example, where God did not forbid swearing by His name, but only doing so falsely), and had even sworn by Himself on occasion (as He did with Abraham in Genesis 22:16). In addition, Jesus later permitted Himself to be put under oath at His trial (Matthew 26:63), and Paul in multiple passages called on God to witness to the truth of what he was saying or writing (Romans 1:9, for example). Instead, in my view, Jesus was condemning the taking of such oaths in common, everyday settings, or frivolously swearing by any object -- both of which were apparently widespread practices at the time -- since every oath (regardless of the language used) was still actually a promise to God that was not be regarded lightly, or as something that could be broken with impunity as long as the actual name of God was not used (as was then widely used as an excuse for non-compliance). For such trivial matters, a simple "yes" or "no" was all that was needed.
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