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In addition to Michael's excellent answer I would like to add that we can and should take God at His Word. Whither historic, present or prophetic we can take what "God Said" to the bank. One of the most blessed and comforting passages of scripture to a believer's heart is Romans 8 28 And we know that all things work together for good to them that love God, to them who are the called according to his purpose. 29 For whom he did foreknow, he also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brethren. 30 Moreover whom he did predestinate, them he also called: and whom he called, them he also justified: and whom he justified, them he also glorified. 31 What shall we then say to these things? If God be for us, who can be against us? 32 He that spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how shall he not with him also freely give us all things? 33 Who shall lay any thing to the charge of God's elect? It is God that justifieth. 34 Who is he that condemneth? It is Christ that died, yea rather, that is risen again, who is even at the right hand of God, who also maketh intercession for us. 35 Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? Shall tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword? 36 As it is written, For thy sake we are killed all the day long; we are accounted as sheep for the slaughter. 37 Nay, in all these things we are more than conquerors through him that loved us. 38 For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things present, nor things to come, 39 Nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord. My point? Notice all the verbs in this passage are past tense (did foreknow, did predestinate, called, justified, glorified). There are obviously those present and future who have not come to a saving knowledge yet according to God's Word, it is already a done deal! Those of us blessed with the gracious gift of eternal life are secure in Him and His finished work. What shall we then say to these things? Personally? I can only humbly bow and say "Thank you Lord for having mercy on me a sinner and saving me by your grace".
I believe Christ obtained this example of forgiveness of sins (and the other) through the Father agreeing with it. In saying 'your sins are forgiven" he was relaying to the sinner what was agreed to by the Father. Christ's power to forgive sins was only effective when and if the Father also approved it. This may seem like a technicality, since Christ said in John 10:30 "I and the Father are one." But Christ said nothing which the Father didn't approve, and the three persons of the trinity are always in agreement.
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