NKJV - 4 In His hand are the deep places of the earth; The heights of the hills are His also.
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In my opinion, from the context of the verse, the psalmist is referring to the physical depths of the earth to its very foundation -- that is, as deep as man can dig or excavate, or to the bottom of the deepest ocean, and then deeper still. The idea being expressed is that God made everything on earth, and is in control over it, from its lowest points to its highest peaks. In fact, He is so much greater than those locations, it is as if He were holding them in His hands. (As I see it, the psalmist is referring only to physical features in this passage, with no connection to any spiritual location or abode (although God's control or sovereignty would extend there, as well).)
I believe these deep places in the earth refer mainly to caves, some of which go down many hundreds of feet below the surface. Certain prehistoric caves have been discovered containing drawings of animals and humans, indicating a spiritual or magical orientation - suggesting that this verse may not be simply poetical. Caves may also be refuges for Christians in times of persecution. The next verse about the hills may also indirectly allude to the fact of past pagan worship on hills or mountains, a practice expressly prohibited for Israelites (Deut 12:1-5). Regardless of what may have gone on in these locations, this Psalm rightfully declares that the LORD is above all things and all "gods."
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