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Jesus provided salvation by undeservedly (because He Himself had never sinned, but had obeyed God's Law perfectly, which no one else has been or could be capable of doing), and purely out of love and mercy for a universally disobedient humanity, dying and enduring the penalty (eternal separation from a holy God) required by God for humanity's sins from eternity past to eternity future. He could do this because He was both truly human and God incarnate. God then testified to the fact that this redemptive act had been sufficient by raising Jesus from the dead to live eternally. As a result, people who recognize their own inability to achieve the absolute righteousness and perfection that God requires, and who instead respond to the prompting of God the Holy Spirit through faith in Christ's death and resurrection to pay the penalty for sin that they themselves have deserved, can then be declared justified (that is, no longer separated from God because of their sin) by God, and can have the eternal life in God's presence that Jesus gained for them.
It is a matter of substitution, the innocent dying for the guilty. Imagine being declared guilty as charged in a court of law for a crime that carried the death penalty. The judge had already rendered the death sentence and as you were about to be taken away someone stood up and said stop! I love this person dearly, I will take their place and pay for their crime. The judge accepts the offer, turns to your captors and says, "release the prisioner and set him free". He also orders the court to have the charges expunged (totally removed) from your record, to never be brought up or held against you in the future. "For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly.For scarcely for a righteous man will one die: yet peradventure for a good man some would even dare to die.But God commendeth his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us." (Romans 5:6-8) Better yet, read the whole chapter.
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