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According to Jewish tradition... "The great kingdom of Rome was built by Zepho, son of Eliphaz, son of Esau. Tirtat of the land of Elisha attacked him and killed him (Yelamdeinu, Batei Midrashos 160)." Consequently, rabbinic Judaism associates Rome (and by extension, Christianity) with Esau and Edom.
There is no way of proving which peoples are Edom through physical records of descent, since those records, if they ever existed, do not exist now. The religion of Esau also perished in ancient times, unlike the religion of the Jews. The true standard, applicable throughout all ages, was stated by Christ in John 8:39 "If you were Abraham's children you would do the works of Abraham." The same applies to Esau. Esau's descendants are those who do the works of Esau. The Turks supposedly identify themselves as the spiritual children of Esau, but definitive evidence is lacking at the present time.
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