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Yes, it does. Even though those who lived prior to the time of Christ were not alive to see the fulfillment of how God would make mankind's redemption possible through the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus, God's promise and prophecy of that redemption were made clear in progressive stages throughout the Old Testament, starting with Genesis 3:15 (immediately after humanity first fell into sin), when God said that the seed of the woman would crush the serpent's head, and eventually even including the foretelling of the events associated with how Jesus would finally accomplish that redemption (in such passages as Psalm 16, Psalm 22, Psalm 41, and Isaiah 53). As noted in Hebrews 11:13-16, it was the faith of people in God's promises associated with whatever portion of the plan of salvation that God had revealed at any particular point in time -- starting with Adam (to whom God's original promise of eventual redemption was made), up through Abraham (for whom Genesis 15:6 specifically says that God reckoned his faith as righteousness), and then to the time of Christ's earthly life -- that God counted on their behalf with respect to their salvation, even if people at any particular point in time did not yet have complete knowledge of that plan, and even though the fulfillment of God's revelation, through Jesus' actual accomplishment of that salvation, may still have lain hundreds or even thousands of years in the future.
Yes, his death did atone for every human before his time. Jesus is the Logos Creator of all creation, including all humans. Adam sinned and the consequence of "second death" has been imputed to one man and this particular sin of Adam, i.e., not any other's sin. Because of Adam's sin, "second death" (which is future) came to all, so therefore to atone for that sin of Adam (and all), only one person needs to die as a PASSOVER LAMB, the Messiah Jesus. See 2 Corinthians 5:14, 21;1 Corinthians 15:3; Romans 5:6, 12,17-19; Rom 6:23 And, this is a mechanism of atonement that has been planned prior to creation. Subsequently, this plan was activated and implemented at the death of Christ. From then on, humanity can claim this imputation of Jesus' death for everyone's sin. And, if, according to some scientists, there may have been humans before Adam, even those humans (all sins imputed to Adam and death of Christ imputed to all) are "covered by the blood of the Passover Lamb.
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