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Let's begin with some general definitions of fatalism and determinism and some related terms: Determinism: The view that every event has a cause and that everything in the universe is absolutely de...
I will attempt to give a treatment of fatalism and determinism below - but as there are many philosophies influencing them and coming out of them, it is hard for any summary to cover them completely. Also, it is easy to misunderstand beliefs and engage in strawman arguments (attacking a limited personal understanding of someone else's belief rather than their own true philosophies) - so understand that the below is just an overview, and not an evaluation. All philosophies of man are understandably limited. **** Fatalism is the philosophical belief that all events are predetermined by 'fate', and therefore inevitable. For some 'fate' is the gods, or God. For others, 'fate' is simply the casual rules of the universe. Several main ideas stem out of this, creating further classes of fatalism. - For some, the idea that events are inevitable affects one's attitude towards life. This can lead to a pessimistic, defeatist attitude (If it is unavoidable, why stress or worry trying to change it?), or a passive acceptance ('what will be will be' sort of thing). - For some, a fatalist philosophy leads to a release of personal responsibility. If all things are predetermined, including our own actions, then we are powerless to do anything other than what we end up doing. Furthermore, man has no real influence to affect the future or to change his own habits. [This is similar to determinism, see below] - For some, they believe that our actions are free, but the end is inevitable. This might be like a 'fixed point in time' that can't be got around (Doctor Who style), or that no matter what we freely choose, it ends up with the same end result. Some scriptures that touch on various aspects (for or against) fatalism: (Matt 5:43-48, Deut 30:15-19, Ezek 18:21-23, Psalms 104:19, Isaiah 40:26, Acts 2:23) **** Determinism is a subset of fatalistic thought. It holds that -all- events; events in nature, acts of will, social phenomena, even the psychological pattern of the mind; are caused by preceding causes, and that people have no real power to even make choices, let alone influence events. It can also believe that the 'preceding causes' were all predetermined, leading to an ultimate belief of the predestination of all things in time and space. Determinism boils everything down to cause and effect. "All events whatsoever are to be understood as the necessary outcome of certain causes and so may be regarded as instances of laws” (Harvey, 1964, 69) However, the above can be classified as 'pre-determinism' and is separate from 'adequate determinism' (the idea that most macroscopic things and events are predetermined via cause and effect, but that on the quantum level there may be uncertainty). 'Soft Determinists'/Compatabalists hold to determinism, but believe man's will is also a 'cause' affecting the chain of events. Some scriptures on various aspects of deterministic thought: (Luke 15:18, John 5:40, John 7:17, Rev 22:17, Deut 27:12-13, Acts 17:31, Isaiah 5:5-15, Isaiah 44:28-45:4) *** Indeterminism is the point that if there is even one failure on one point of determinism (such as, something is found that is not determined by a previous cause), then determinism (all events being predetermined) could not be true. It is not incompatible with ideas that the majority of things might be predetermined, that most physical, observable events (such as a snowstorm) can be traced back to specific factors, that macroscopic objects are determined to a large degree, or with 'adequate determinism'- it simply precludes strict determinism. A classic example of this is Heisenburg's Indeterminacy principle (or 'uncertainty' principle) from quantum mechanics - (we can only know the exact position and the momentum of an atomic particle within certain limits). The 'Schrodinger's Cat' thought experiment is in the same vein.
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