Exodus 1

Israel Increases Greatly in Egypt

1 a These are the names of the sons of Israel who came to Egypt with Jacob, each with his household: 2 Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah, 3 Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin, 4 Dan and Naphtali, Gad and Asher. 5 All the descendants of Jacob were b seventy persons; Joseph was already in Egypt. 6 Then c Joseph died, and all his brothers and all that generation. 7 d But the people of Israel were fruitful and increased greatly; they multiplied and grew exceedingly strong, so that the land was filled with them.

Pharaoh Oppresses Israel

8 Now there arose a new king over Egypt, e who did not know Joseph. 9 And he said to his people, "Behold, f the people of Israel are too many and too mighty for us. 10 g Come, h let us deal shrewdly with them, lest they multiply, and, if war breaks out, they join our enemies and fight against us and escape from the land." 11 Therefore they set taskmasters over them i to afflict them with heavy j burdens. They built for Pharaoh k store cities, Pithom and l Raamses. 12 But the more they were oppressed, the more they multiplied and the more they spread abroad. And the Egyptians were in dread of the people of Israel. 13 So they ruthlessly made the people of Israel m work as slaves 14 and n made their lives bitter with hard service, in mortar and brick, and in all kinds of work in the field. In all their work they ruthlessly made them work as slaves.

15 Then the king of Egypt said to the Hebrew midwives, one of whom was named Shiphrah and the other Puah, 16 "When you serve as midwife to the Hebrew women and see them on the birthstool, if it is a son, you shall kill him, but if it is a daughter, she shall live." 17 But the midwives o feared God and did not do as the king of Egypt commanded them, but let the male children live. 18 So the king of Egypt called the midwives and said to them, "Why have you done this, and let the male children live?" 19 The midwives said to Pharaoh, "Because the Hebrew women are not like the Egyptian women, for they are vigorous and give birth before the midwife comes to them." 20 p So God dealt well with the midwives. And the people multiplied and grew very strong. 21 And because the midwives feared God, q he gave them families. 22 Then Pharaoh commanded all his people, r "Every son that is born to the Hebrews 1 you shall cast into s the Nile, but you shall let every daughter live."

  1. Cross References
    Exodus 1:1 - 4
    These are the names of the sons of Israel who came to Egypt with Jacob, each with his household:
    Genesis 35:23 - 26
    The sons of Leah: Reuben (Jacob's firstborn), Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun.
    Genesis 46:8 - 26
    Now these are the names of the descendants of Israel, who came into Egypt, Jacob and his sons. Reuben, Jacob's firstborn.
  2. Cross References
    Genesis 46:27
    And the sons of Joseph, who were born to him in Egypt, were two. All the persons of the house of Jacob who came into Egypt were seventy.
    Deuteronomy 10:22
    Your fathers went down to Egypt seventy persons, and now the Lord your God has made you as numerous as the stars of heaven.
  3. Cross References
    Genesis 50:26
    So Joseph died, being 110 years old. They embalmed him, and he was put in a coffin in Egypt.
  4. Cross References
    Deuteronomy 26:5
    And you shall make response before the Lord your God, 'A wandering Aramean was my father. And he went down into Egypt and sojourned there, few in number, and there he became a nation, great, mighty, and populous.
    Acts 7:17
    But as the time of the promise drew near, which God had granted to Abraham, the people increased and multiplied in Egypt
    Genesis 46:3
    Then he said, "I am God, the God of your father. Do not be afraid to go down to Egypt, for there I will make you into a great nation.
  5. Cross References
    Acts 7:18
    Until there arose over Egypt another king who did not know Joseph.
  6. Cross References
    Psalms 105:24
    And the Lord made his people very fruitful and made them stronger than their foes.
  7. Cross References
    Psalms 83:3 - 4
    They lay crafty plans against your people; they consult together against your treasured ones.
  8. Cross References
    Psalms 105:25
    He turned their hearts to hate his people, to deal craftily with his servants.
    Acts 7:19
    He dealt shrewdly with our race and forced our fathers to expose their infants, so that they would not be kept alive.
  9. Cross References
    Exodus 3:7
    Then the Lord said, "I have surely seen the affliction of my people who are in Egypt and have heard their cry because of their taskmasters. I know their sufferings.
    Genesis 15:13
    Then the Lord said to Abram, "Know for certain that your offspring will be sojourners in a land that is not theirs and will be servants there, and they will be afflicted for four hundred years.
    Deuteronomy 26:6
    And the Egyptians treated us harshly and humiliated us and laid on us hard labor.
  10. Cross References
    Exodus 2:11
    One day, when Moses had grown up, he went out to his people and looked on their burdens, and he saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew, one of his people.
    Exodus 5:4 - 5
    But the king of Egypt said to them, "Moses and Aaron, why do you take the people away from their work? Get back to your burdens.
    Exodus 6:6 - 7
    Say therefore to the people of Israel, 'I am the Lord, and I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will deliver you from slavery to them, and I will redeem you with an outstretched arm and with great acts of judgment.
    Psalms 81:6
    I relieved your shoulder of the burden; your hands were freed from the basket.
  11. Cross References
    2 Chronicles 16:4
    And Ben-hadad listened to King Asa and sent the commanders of his armies against the cities of Israel, and they conquered Ijon, Dan, Abel-maim, and all the store cities of Naphtali.
  12. Cross References
    Exodus 12:37
    And the people of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand men on foot, besides women and children.
    Genesis 47:11
    Then Joseph settled his father and his brothers and gave them a possession in the land of Egypt, in the best of the land, in the land of Rameses, as Pharaoh had commanded.
  13. Cross References
    Exodus 5:7 - 19
    You shall no longer give the people straw to make bricks, as in the past; let them go and gather straw for themselves.
  14. Cross References
    Exodus 2:23
    During those many days the king of Egypt died, and the people of Israel groaned because of their slavery and cried out for help. Their cry for rescue from slavery came up to God.
    Exodus 6:9
    Moses spoke thus to the people of Israel, but they did not listen to Moses, because of their broken spirit and harsh slavery.
    Numbers 20:15
    How our fathers went down to Egypt, and we lived in Egypt a long time. And the Egyptians dealt harshly with us and our fathers.
    Acts 7:19
    He dealt shrewdly with our race and forced our fathers to expose their infants, so that they would not be kept alive.
    Acts 7:34
    I have surely seen the affliction of my people who are in Egypt, and have heard their groaning, and I have come down to deliver them. And now come, I will send you to Egypt.
  15. Cross References
    Proverbs 16:6
    By steadfast love and faithfulness iniquity is atoned for, and by the fear of the Lord one turns away from evil.
    Daniel 3:16 - 18
    Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego answered and said to the king, "O Nebuchadnezzar, we have no need to answer you in this matter.
    Daniel 6:13
    Then they answered and said before the king, "Daniel, who is one of the exiles from Judah, pays no attention to you, O king, or the injunction you have signed, but makes his petition three times a day.
    Acts 5:29
    But Peter and the apostles answered, "We must obey God rather than men.
  16. Cross References
    Ecclesiastes 8:12
    Though a sinner does evil a hundred times and prolongs his life, yet I know that it will be well with those who fear God, because they fear before him.
  17. Cross References
    1 Samuel 2:35
    And I will raise up for myself a faithful pries...
    2 Samuel 7:11
    From the time that I appointed judges over my p...
    2 Samuel 7:27
    For you, O Lord of hosts, the God of Israel, ha...
    1 Kings 2:24
    Now therefore as the Lord lives, who has establ...
    1 Kings 11:38
    And if you will listen to all that I command yo...
    Psalms 127:1
    Unless the Lord builds the house, those who bui...
  18. Cross References
    Acts 7:19
    He dealt shrewdly with our race and forced our fathers to expose their infants, so that they would not be kept alive.
  19. Cross References
    Genesis 41:1
    After two whole years, Pharaoh dreamed that he was standing by the Nile.
English Standard Version (ESV) The Holy Bible, English Standard Version Copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a division of Good News Publishers.
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