1 Corinthians 9:27
ESV - 27 But I discipline my body and keep it under control, lest after preaching to others I myself should be disqualified.
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I would say that the Bible affirms that, for Christians, their bodies are temples of the Holy Spirit, which God has bought with a price -- the sacrifice of His own Son (1 Corinthians 6:19-20). Thus, Christians are responsible for maintaining, disciplining, and channeling their bodies (which is part of the whole process of overcoming "the flesh", and which includes not only fleshly appetites -- such as hunger and sexual desire -- but also the use we make of the bodily strength and physical abilities that God has given us) so that we are equipped to be of maximum use and service to Him and to other humans (especially in evangelizing and serving as role models for the unconverted). Paul affirms this mindset in the verse cited in the question by speaking of the way in which he physically disciplined his body and made it his servant rather than his master. The Bible also condemns laziness in several passages -- most notably in Proverbs in verses such as Proverbs 6:6-9, Proverbs 13:4, Proverbs 21:25-26, Proverbs 24:30-34, and Proverbs 26:13-16 -- indicating by implication that it is better, or more God-pleasing, to be active (although not referring to exercise by name). Aside from this general orientation, a possible reason that occurs to me as to why the Bible might not speak more extensively or specifically about exercise would have been that it would have been unnecessary in that time and culture. Unlike the sedentary routine that people may practice today (at home, on their jobs, or both) the daily lives of ordinary people at that time would have been filled with physical exertion (including walking to get from place to place) to a degree that exercise was considered a "given", and that special Biblical mention of a need for even more of it would have been superfluous.
I read one comment online, "Only one time is physical exercise mentioned in the Bible and it is in I Timothy 4:8 – which reads “For physical training is of some value, but godliness has value for all things, holding promise for both the present life and the life to come.” So the Bible affirms that “physical training is of some value“. But the principle is there, elsewhere in the Bible, too. I agree with what Tim Maas wrote above, "The Bible also condemns laziness in several passages -- most notably in Proverbs in verses such as Proverbs 6:6-9, Proverbs 13:4, Proverbs 21:25-26, Proverbs 24:30-34, and Proverbs 26:13-16 -- indicating by implication that it is better, or more God-pleasing, to be active (although not referring to exercise by name)." At the same time the Bible commends industriousness (or, exercise) in Proverbs 24:5 - "A wise man [is] strong; yea, a man of knowledge increaseth strength." Also, I base my daily exercise on 1 Corinthians Chapter 9 24 Know ye not that they which run in a race run all, but one receiveth the prize? So run, that ye may obtain. 25 And every man that striveth for the mastery is temperate in all things. Now they [do it] to obtain a corruptible crown; but we an incorruptible. 26 I therefore so run, not as uncertainly; so fight I, not as one that beateth the air: 27 But I keep under my body, and bring [it] into subjection: lest that by any means, when I have preached to others, I myself should be a castaway. And I do it so I can live longer, serving Christ (an established fact): Studies show that exercise gives us physical and mental energy, it gives us stronger muscles and bones, helps us sleep better, reduces fatigue, depression, and anxiety, fights heart disease, and generally gives you a longer, healthier life.“
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