Deuteronomy 4:41 - 42
ESV - 41 Then Moses set apart three cities in the east beyond the Jordan. 42 That the manslayer might flee there, anyone who kills his neighbor unintentionally, without being at enmity with him in time past; he may flee to one of these cities and save his life:
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Even in the Old Testament (as indicated in the passage cited in the question), there was a distinction made between deliberate or premeditated killing, and unintentional or accidental killing. The Law for unintentional killing had provisions by which the life of the perpetrator might be saved, which would imply to me that the perpetrator's eternal destiny was also not affected. (Fleeing to the designated city of refuge would indicate a response to God's call to repentance on the perpetrator's part for his role in the death.) Also, the only sin that cannot be forgiven (and thus cause one to lose salvation) is a final refusal to respond to God's offer of eternal life through faith in Christ. Any other sin can be forgiven for Jesus' sake (although there may still be adverse temporal consequences (legal or otherwise) resulting from the sin that the perpetrator has to bear).
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