ESV - 11 So I ask, did they stumble in order that they might fall? By no means! Rather through their trespass salvation has come to the Gentiles, so as to make Israel jealous.
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If you continue to read Romans 11 you'll see in verse 14 that Paul was trying to make the Jews who didn't believe jealous in order to bring them to salvation in Christ Jesus. He used the olive tree. Romans 11:17-24, as an example of grafting Gentiles into the branches which the unbelieving Jews had fallen from. Paul was an Apostle to the Gentiles because God chose him for that mission but he never forgot his Jewish brethren and often wrote of his hopes for them to receive their salvation. Bible historians say Paul wrote Romans while on his third visit to Corinth, AD 57-58, after travelling all over western Asia (the Middle East) and preaching in many synagogues and other places that would accommodate crowds. Having spoken to many Jews in his travels he knew that even though many became believers there were many more who did not and, being Jewish himself, it troubled him mightily that his kinsmen were still in their unbelief and he used any means he could to try and convert them, including jealousy, Romans 11:11.