ESV - 14 He will give the rain for your land in its season, the early rain and the later rain, that you may gather in your grain and your wine and your oil.
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I'm no agronomist, but my understanding is that the crops grown in the particular climate of Israel would not all have been sown and harvested together at the same time during the year, such as planting in the spring and harvesting in the fall. Their growing seasons would have varied, so that some (such as grains) would need rain more in the spring (the "early rain" in the verse cited), and others (such as grapes, figs, pomegranates, and olives) would need rain more in the fall (the "latter rain").
Latter rain, means spring rain between March and April. These rains will mature the crops in Israel. First rain means autumn or fall rain between late October and December.
The agricultural cycle of the Israelites of spring and fall rains is the basis for the activity of the Holy Spirit. The "latter rain" refers to the markedly increased activity of the Holy Spirit in the latter days, or last days. The early rain then refers to the Holy Spirit's activity during the beginning years of Christianity. Peter referred to this in Acts 2:14-21. Of course, the last days at that time were the last days for the Jews as a separate nation in the Middle East. Besides their homeland they lost the Aaronic priesthood and their prophetic line. 1 John 2:18-19 tells of the anti-christs arising at that time out of true Christianity to tempt and deceive the Jews. Today, we are in the last days for Christianity before the return of Christ, where the Holy Spirit will be highly active again to resist the arising of all the prophesied false prophets and false christs.
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