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Paul discusses this point in Romans 9-11, and cites multiple Old Testament passages prophesying that the Gentiles would also become God's people. These include: Hosea 2:23 Hosea 1:10 Deuteronomy 32:21 Isaiah 65:1 Isaiah 29:10 Psalm 69:22-23 In addition, Peter quoted Joel 2:28-32 in his sermon at Pentecost in Acts 2, indicating that God's Spirit would be poured out in the last days on all people, and that everyone who called on the name of the Lord would be saved. (These are passages that occurred to me offhand, although I would say that there would undoubtedly be others, also.)
Here is my opinion: There is no specific prophecy found in the Old Testament stating that gentiles were to be co-heirs of the Kingdom of God. The strict Jewish laws against intermarriage with gentiles (considered spiritually inferior) discouraged explicit prophecies of that kind. However, this is not the end of the matter. The name "Israel", contrary to popular understanding, is not just a hereditary title of the of the Jews or descendants of Jacob. The actual descendants of Jacob after the flesh were called simply "the sons of Jacob" in the bible. Scriptures do discriminate between Jacob and Israel in several places. As a word, "Israel" means "ruler or prince of God." This is in recognition of "Israel" as the government of the Kingdom of God on earth as instituted by Christ. But who is Israel? The word Israel refers to the spiritual status of those who, knowing what sin is, have obtained forgiveness of their sins and possess the privilege of direct contact with God through prayer. This is a personal, not a hereditary matter. The children of Israel as a whole were intended to be a kingdom of priests (Ex 19.6). They were not a complete success, and the bible records many failures. Thus Christ said, "It is the spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing... (John 6:63). Also, "...For they are not all Israel, which are of Israel (Romans 9:6). Bearing this in mind, when we see prophecies in the Old Testament referring to Israel, we need to discern the real meaning behind the actual wording. For example, Isa 45:17 "But Israel shall be saved in the LORD with an everlasting salvation: ye shall not be ashamed nor confounded world without end." This is quoted in Romans 11:26 "And so all Israel shall be saved" by Paul in discussing how the gentiles have been grafted into the olive tree of Israel. Also, Ezek 37:11 speaks of the "whole house of Israel", implying more than official genealogical status. In Daniel 7:27, we have the "people of the saints of the Most High" being given the everlasting kingdom. This suggests a people besides Jews, specifically Christians since Christ is the son of the Most High, John the Baptist was the prophet of the Most High, and Melchizedek was a priest/king of the Most High. In the name Israel itself we can discover the reconciliation between Jew and Gentile, but the revelation of its final meaning will continue on into the future.
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